The Chemistry of Indica and Sativa

 

INDICA AND SATIVA ARE NOT DIFFERENT CHEMOTYPES

“Strains labeled as indica were compared with those labeled as sativa and no evidence was found that these two cultivars are distinctly different chemotypes.”

https://www.esciencecentral.org/journals/cannabinoids-and-terpenes-as-chemotaxonomic-markers-in-cannabis-2329-6836-1000181.pdf

 

CHEMICAL REPORTS ARE BETTER THAN INDICA OR SATIVA FOR DESCRIBING MEDICAL MARIJUANA

“Terpenoids analysis, combined with cannabinoids and flavonoids analyses, are essential for the metabolic fingerprinting of pharmaceutical cultivars. Pharmaceutical cultivars of the two principal biotypes may exhibit distinctive medicinal properties due to significant differences in relative contents of terpenoids, thus the synergy between the various secondary metabolites must be investigated in deeper details in the future in order to better elucidate the phytocomplex of Cannabis and to allow selection of chemotypes with specific medical effects.”

http://www.fundacion-canna.es/en/variations-terpene-profiles-different-strains-cannabis-sativa-l

 

ACCORDING TO CHEMISTRY, ‘OG KUSH’ IS LITTLE MORE THAN A NAME

““OG Kush is really not able to be mapped to any particular chemical composition whatsoever,” he says. “The more popular the name, the less likely it would be to have a very consistent chemical composition.” That most pot names are meaningless is at this point an elephant in the room, confirmed by study after study and yet still not meaningfully affecting how the stuff is sold.”

https://www.inverse.com/article/31743-marijuana-science-debunks-strains

 

CANNABINOIDS

 

DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL - THC

THC MAY OFFER A INCREASED SENSE OF WELL-BEING

“Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332000

 

THC MAY BE AN ANTI-DEPRESSANT

“Results of this study show that ∆9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305710000730

 

THC - FALL ASLEEP FASTER

“THC was found to significantly decrease the time it takes to fall asleep in physically healthy insomniacs.”

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00437513#page-1

 

THC - LONGER SLEEP

“THC tended to be associated with some decrease in awakenings in the first half of the night.”

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00437513#page-1

 

THC - DEEPER SLEEP

“Nevertheless, the impression gained from these studies was that certain doses of THC, particularly with repeated ingestion, may reduce rapid eye movement (REM) activity and increase slow-wave sleep.”

http://safeaccess.ca/research/pdf/Nicholson_CBME_Sleep.pdf

 

THC - PAIN RELIEF

“THC had a moderate and lengthy effect [on pain].”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6301931

 

CANNABIDIOL - CBD

CBD - ANTI-ANXIETY, ANTI-PANIC, OR ANTI-STRESS OPTION

“Accordingly, CBD has been shown to reduce amygdalar responses to fearful stimuli [207]; this mechanism may be essential for the anxiolytic effects of this compound in social phobia [203]. Furthermore, CBD has been shown to elicit antipanic effects through the activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a critical area for the modulation of emotional reactivity to stress [208,209].”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3691841/

 

“The main finding from this case study is that CBD oil can be an effective compound to reduce anxiety and insomnia secondary to PTSD”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101100/

 

CBD - APPETITE SUPPRESSANT

“Conversely, cannabidiol significantly reduced total chow consumption over the test period.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543671

 

CBD - PAIN RELIEF

“CBD… stimulated descending pathways of antinociception and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. [CBD] might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20942863

 

CBD - HYPNOTIC

“Subjects receiving 160 mg cannabidiol reported having slept significantly more than those receiving placebo; the volunteers also reported significantly less dream recall; with the three doses of cannabidiol than with placebo.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7028792

 

CANNABICHROMENE - CBC

CBC - ANTI DEPRESSANT

“cannabichromene (CBC) exhibited significant ‘antidepressant-like” effects at 20mg/kg”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332000

 

CBC - PAIN RELIEF

“CBC stimulated descending pathways of antinociception and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. [CBC] might represent useful therapeutic agents with multiple mechanisms of action.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20942863

 

“CBC had a weak analgetic action in mice”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6301931

 

CANNABINOL - CBN

CBN - POWERFUL SEDATIVE

“The consumption of 2.5mg to 5mg of CBN has the same level of sedation as a mild pharmaceutical sedative, with a relaxed body sensation similar to 5mg to 10mg of diazepam. CBN is synergistic with both CBD and D9THC for inducement of sleeping, and when mixed in the correct ratios, CBN becomes an effective sleep aid of 5-6 hours duration.”

http://steephill.com/blogs/34/Cannabinol-(CBD):-A-Sleeping-Synergy

 

CBN - APPETITE STIMULANT

“This is the first time cannabinol has been shown to increase feeding. Therefore, cannabinol could, in the future, provide an alternative to the currently used and psychotropic ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-based medicines since cannabinol is currently considered to be non-psychotropic. Furthermore, cannabidiol reduced food intake in line with some existing reports, supporting the need for further mechanistic and behavioral work examining possible anti-obesity effects of cannabidiol.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543671

 

CANNABIGEROL - CBG

CBG - ANTI-DEPRESSANT

”This investigation has provided the first evidence that cannabigerol can activate α2-adrenoceptors, bind to cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and block CB1 and 5-HT1A receptors.” [C]annabigerol can indeed inhibit noradrenaline reuptake, this would be consistent with a preliminary report that it increases struggling behaviour in the mouse tail suspension test, an indication that it may possess antidepressant activity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823359/

 

“This is the first report that a CBG extract has an antidepressive effect.”

http://icrs.co/SYMPOSIUM.2006/2006.ICRS.Program.and.Abstracts.pdf

 

TETRAHYDROCANNABIVARIN - THCV

THCV - METABOLISM BOOST

Cannabinoid receptors have also been found in fat and the liver, which might explain why GW Pharma’s compound THCV improved metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes in animals.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/xx_factor/2012/07/11/marijuana_and_weight_loss_the_pot_you_smoke_isn_t_going_to_make_you_skinny.html

 

THCV - ENERGY

“Additionally, the propylated form of THC (THCV), induced weight loss, decreased body fat and serum leptin concentrations with increased energy expenditure in a murine study [3].  is particular study poses interest in creating molecules similar to THCV as potential dietary drugs.”

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/a-preliminary-understanding-of-cannabis-medicine-and-the-need-for-furthercharacterization-2155-9872-1000275.pdf


TERPENES


EUCALYPTOL

UPLIFTING

Widely cited by various aromatherapeutic professionals. Quote was unavailable as this book isn’t published digitally.

https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0892818875/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0892818875&linkCode=as2&tag=aayw-20&linkId=TN6ZADFRHG4Q6ISX

 

https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1883319692/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=1883319692&linkCode=as2&tag=aayw-20&linkId=5QNFMQZQFKTAMQD7

 

PINENE

SHARPENING

“alpha-pinene [is a] potent inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15740071

 

“Perhaps most compelling, however, is its activity as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aiding memory”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x/abstract

 

LIMONENE

ANTI-DEPRESSANT

”Fragrance (citrus was our choice) which comforts through stimulation of the olfactory system was applied to depressive patients. It was given to 12 depressive subjects and the results indicated that the doses of antidepressants necessary for the treatment of depression could be markedly reduced. The treatment with citrus fragrance normalized neuroendocrine hormone levels and immune function and was rather more effective than antidepressants.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8646568

 

“Human clinical studies, in which hospitalized depressed patients were exposed with limonene aroma, demonstrated a significant anti-depressive effect.”

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/a-preliminary-understanding-of-cannabis-medicine-and-the-need-for-furthercharacterization-2155-9872-1000275.php?aid=63126

 

APPETITE SUPPRESSANT

“Modulation of appetite by olfactory detection of D-limonene was shown.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18809464

 

ANTI-ANXIETY

“These data suggest possible connections between the volatility of (+)-limonene and its anxiolytic-like effect on the parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze test. The data indicate that (+)-limonene could be used in aromatherapy as an anti-anxiety agent.”

http://www.wellnessresources.com/studies/anti-anxiety_properties_of_d-limonene/

 

BORNEOL

INCREASES ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY

"Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption"

https://www.omicsonline.org/references/natural-borneol-a-monoterpenoid-compound-potentiates-selenocystineinduced-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-enhancement-of-cellular-uptake-an-229260.html

 

CARYOPHYLLENE

ANTI-ANXIETY

“Taken together, these preclinical results suggest that CB2 receptors may provide alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The possibility that BCP may ameliorate the symptoms of these mood disorders offers exciting prospects for future studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930711

 

CB2 AGONIST

“Here, we report that the widespread plant volatile (E)-β-caryophyllene [(E)-BCP] selectively binds to the CB2 receptor (K i = 155 ± 4 nM) and that it is a functional CB2 agonist.”

http://www.pnas.org/content/105/26/9099.long

 

LINALOOL

SEDATIVE

“These results proved the sedative effects of these fragrants via inhalative exposure in low concentrations.”

http://jpharmsci.org/article/S0022-3549(15)49151-8/pdf

 

“Sedative effect on humans of inhalation of essential oil of linalool”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267097006399

 

ANTI-ANXIETY

“Inhaled linalool showed anxiolytic properties in the light/dark test, increased social interaction and decreased aggressive behavior; impaired memory was only seen the higher dose of linalool. These results strengthen the suggestion that inhaling linalool rich essential oils can be useful as a mean to attain relaxation and counteract anxiety.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962290

 

MYRCENE

PAIN RELIEF

“The results suggest that myrcene is capable of inducing antinociception in mice, probably mediated by alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulated release of endogenous opioids.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1983154

 

“The peripheral analgesic effect of myrcene was confirmed by testing a standard commercial preparation on the hyperalgesia induced by prostaglandin in the rat paw test and upon the contortions induced by intraperitoneal injections of iloprost in mice. In contrast to the central analgesic effect of morphine, myrcene did not cause tolerance on repeated injection in rats. Terpenes such as myrcene may constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1753786

 

SEDATIVE

“Our study showed that… myrcene presented sedative as well as motor relaxant effects.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587690

 

“This analgesic activity supports the use of lemongrass tea as a "sedative" in folk medicine.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1753786

 

HYPNOTIC

“Together, these data would support the hypothesis that myrcene is a prominent sedative terpenoid in cannabis, and combined with THC, may produce the ‘couch-lock’ phenomenon of certain chemotypes that is alternatively decried or appreciated by recreational cannabis consumers.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x/pdf

 

NEROLIDOL

SEDATIVE

“Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus. Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23765368

 

TERPINEOL

SEDATIVE

“Terpineol - sedative” pg 1062

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja105512f

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